Amazon’s CEO Will Sell $1 Billion in Stock Annually to Fund His Space Travel Company

A Billion Dollar Commitment

On Wednesday, April 5, Jeff Bezos, founder and CEO of Amazon, revealed that he is financing Blue Origin, his space company, by selling approximately $1 billion in Amazon stock annually. He made the announcement as he stood before the full-scale mock capsule of his New Shepard rocket, emphasizing his vision for a future that includes millions of humans playing, working, and living in space.

The reusable New Shepard rocket will take six people up into space for stunning panoramic views of our home world, and possibly some tumbling around to enjoy weightlessness. On the return to the ground and reality, the travelers will endure 5 Gs of pressure and eventually slow to a comfortable 5 km per hour (3 miles per hour) before touching down.

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Bezos said he wasn’t yet sure how much passengers would pay, but said that as spaceflight becomes more common, ticket prices will decline.

The capsule and the rocket booster are both reusable to make New Shepard’s trips more economical. “Reusability is the key to getting millions of people living and working in space,” said Bezos at the press conference.

Both Bezos and SpaceX’s Elon Musk have zeroed in on reusability as an essential component of an economically accessible space age. Bezos believes that his investment into lowering the entry costs of going into orbit will lead to a “golden age of space exploration.”

Rocket Reusability

Not everyone working in the space industry believes in the importance of reusability. In July 2016, the majority of a discussion panel concluded that reusability was not as key to lowering costs as Musk has claimed in the past. However, as noted by Ars Technica, the panel was composed only of people who were not in the reusable market — the “old-guard perspective.”

In contrast, new space companies like Blue Origin and SpaceX have pushed reusability based on the idea that there exists a hard limit on economical space activity due to high launch costs. Reducing these costs brings more people to the table, which prompts more innovation, which again reduces costs. This clash in thought between new space innovators, like Bezos and Musk, and the more traditional space establishment is a predictable, perhaps unavoidable, result of our current transitional state of space exploration: from government-run to market-driven.

“If we can make access to space low-cost, then entrepreneurs will be unleashed,” Bezos said to reporters. “You will see creativity, you will see dynamism, you will see the same thing in space that I’ve witnessed on the internet in the last 20 years.”

With his current level of investment into Blue Origin and reusable spacecrafts, Bezos stands a good chance of attracting the right talent and fostering innovation — both of which are critical to ensuring that his long-term vision for the future eventually morphs into reality.

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Blue Origin ready to support NASA lunar missions with Blue Moon

Meyerson Blue Moon

COLORADO SPRINGS — If NASA’s human spaceflight program is redirected back to the Moon, Blue Origin is ready to support it with its proposed “Blue Moon” lunar lander system, company president Robert Meyerson said April 5.

Blue Moon can “cost effectively soft-land large amounts of mass onto the lunar surface,” Meyerson said at the 33rd Space Symposium here, his first public comments about the system since its existence was first reported in March by the Washington Post. “Any credible first lunar settlement is going to require such a capability.”

The lander, he said, would be part of a “space transfer and lunar lander architecture, leveraging Blue and NASA technologies,” he said. “Blue Moon directly leverages our New Shepard proven vertical takeoff and vertical landing technology, combined with our extensive liquid propulsion capabilities to reduce development time and risk.”

Blue Origin would be willing to invest in development of the Blue Moon system as part of a partnership with NASA, Meyerson said, envisioning regular delivery of resources and supplies to a potential lunar colony to augment NASA missions launched by the agency’s own Space Launch System.

“The more NASA flies SLS, the more they will need commercial logistics delivery services,” he said. “New Glenn and Blue Origin and Blue Moon compliment SLS and Orion, enabling NASA’s return to the moon, and this time to stay.”

NASA’s current human spaceflight plans do not include human missions to the lunar surface. Instead, NASA has outlined an an architecture that calls for the development of a human-tended facility in cislunar space, called the Deep Space Gateway, by the mid-2020s intended to support testing of technologies needed for human missions to Mars in the 2030s.

However, other nations have expressed interest in human missions to the moon, and the Deep Space Gateway could support such missions. “The goal is to see what we can prove out in the area around the moon and work with our international partners to see what we can do on the surface of the moon,” NASA Acting Administrator Robert Lightfoot said of NASA’s plans here April 4, adding that such cooperation would be extended to commercial partners as well.

The proposed Blue Moon design would be optimized to fly on SLS, but could also launch aboard other rockets including United Launch Alliance’s Atlas 5 and Blue Origin’s own New Glenn rocket, he said.

Lunar missions fit into the vision of company founder Jeff Bezos, who frequently talks about a future with an extensive human presence beyond Earth. “The lunar surface offers valuable resources with valuable science return and can serve as a location to demonstrate key technologies and serve as an appropriate location for that long-term permanent settlement,” Meyerson said.

“We also believe the moon is in sequence for longer term exploration of the solar system, including Mars,” he said. “These are the first steps we’re working on to enable our vision of millions of people living and working in space.”

Jeff Foust contributed to this story.

Blue Origin still planning commercial suborbital flights in 2018

Blue Origin founder Jeff Bezos discusses the status of the company's New Shepard suborbital vehicle April 5 at the 33rd Space Symposium in Colorado Springs. Behind Bezos are a model of the New Shepard crew capsule and the propulsion module that flew five suborbital flights. Credit: SpaceNews/Jeff Foust

COLORADO SPRINGS — Blue Origin founder Jeff Bezos said April 5 that his company was still hoping to start flying people on suborbital space tourism flights by the end of next year, while suggesting crewed test flights will not start this year as previously planned.

Bezos, speaking in front of the company’s exhibit at the 33rd Space Symposium here that features the New Shepard propulsion module that flew five suborbital spaceflights in 2015 and 2016, backed away from earlier statements that called for flying people on test flights later this year.

“We’re going to go through the test program, and we’ll put humans on it when we’re happy,” he said. “I don’t think it’s going to be 2017 at this point. It could be.”

Even if Blue Origin doesn’t start crewed test flights this year, he believed the vehicle could be ready for commercial flights next year. “I still think we could do commercial paying passengers in 2018,” he said.

Bezos emphasized several times in a question-and-answer session that the company was not following a rigid schedule for the development of New Shepard. “I always remind the team that we’re not racing. This vehicle is going to carry humans. We’re going to make it as safe as we can make it,” he said. “We’re not going to take any shortcuts. We’re going to put humans on this vehicle when we’re ready and not a second sooner.”

Any delay in the development of New Shepard, he said, is not based on the company’s work on the BE-4 engine for both United Launch Alliance’s Vulcan engine and Blue Origin’s own New Glenn orbital launch vehicle. “We’re really not constrained by our BE-4 activities. Both are fully staffed,” he said.

Blue Origin used the conference to show off a model of the interior of the New Shepard’s crew capsule. It features six seats, fixed in a horizontal position. People flying on the vehicle will have access to large windows as well as computer monitors that display information on the status of the flight. They will also be able to float around the cabin during the approximately four minutes of weightlessness on a typical flight.

Blue Origin, though, has not started selling tickets for those flights. “We’ll probably start taking down payments and selling tickets when we’re closer to commercial operations,” Bezos said. “We have a whole test program ahead of us.”

Blue Origin has also not yet set a ticket price for those flights. “We’re working on that,” he said. “We still have time. It’s not an urgent thing to figure out because we’re not ready to sell tickets anyway.”

New Shepard cabin
Ariane Cornell, head of astronaut strategy and sales at Blue Origin, discusses the features of the New Shepard crew capsule inside a full-sized model of the capsule on display at the 33rd Space Symposium. Credit: SpaceNews/Jeff Foust

Bezos suggested that New Shepard, in addition to serving as a suborbital vehicle for tourism and research, could also be converted into a small satellite launch vehicle. “I’m thinking it might be interesting to build a small second stage for this New Shepard booster because we could use it to put smallsats into orbit,” he said. “It would be perfectly capable of being a first stage for a small orbital vehicle.”

He said such a system would not necessarily be a low-cost vehicle on a price-per-kilogram basis. “It does have certain advantages if you’re doing, say, replacement of LEO constellation satellites,” he said.

Blue Origin’s focus for satellite launch is the far larger New Glenn vehicle that the company announced last September and provided additional details about in March. That vehicle’s first stage is also designed to be reusable.

“All of the learnings that we’re getting from New Shepard are going into our orbital vehicle, New Glenn,” he said. “We already learned so much just by designing and building and flying New Shepard, and all of those learnings are already incorporated into our New Glenn design.”

Blue Origin expects to begin New Glenn flights in 2020, and will initially focus on launching satellites. “Ultimately, most of our flights will be taking people up into space,” he said. “That is going to take a while.”

Bezos didn’t state how much of his personal wealth, estimated to be more than $75 billion thanks to his stake in retailer, he has invested into Blue Origin to date. However, he did state he expected New Glenn to cost $2.5 billion to develop.

“My business model right now for Blue Origin is that I sell about $1 billion a year of Amazon stock and I use it to invest in Blue Origin,” he said. “It’s very important that Blue Origin stand on its own feet and be a profitable, sustainable enterprise. That’s how real progress gets made.”

Bruno: Vulcan engine downselect is Blue’s to lose

Blue Origin founder Jeff Bezos speaks in front of his company's New Shepard suborbital vehicle on display at the 33rd Space Symposium in Colorado Springs April 5. Bezos said the company still plans to start flying people on suborbital space tourism flights by the end of 2018, although the company has yet to start selling tickets or even setting a ticket price. Development of New Shepard, he said, is informing the company's plans for an orbital launch vehicle, New Glenn, that will use the same BE-4 engines that United Launch Alliance is considering for its Vulcan rocket. Credit: Chuck Bigger for SpaceNews

COLORADO SPRINGS — United Launch Alliance is prepared to select Blue Origin’s BE-4 engine for its Vulcan launch vehicle this year if the engine passes an upcoming series of tests, the company’s chief executive said April 5.

In an interview during the 33rd Space Symposium here, Tory Bruno said that tests of the BE-4 engine, scheduled to begin “very soon” at Blue Origin’s test site in West Texas, are the last major hurdle the engine must clear before ULA decides to use it on Vulcan.

“The economic factors are largely in place now and the thing that is outstanding is the technical risk,” Bruno said. “That’s why we keep talking about the engine firing.”

A major aspect of the engine tests, he said, is to determine the degree of combustion instability the BE-4 has when the engine starts. “Any time when you are developing a new rocket engine, any time you change the scale or the fuel, you are at risk of this phenomenon,” he said. The BE-4 engine is the largest engine developed to date that uses methane as fuel, rather than more common alternatives like kerosene or liquid hydrogen.

“We look first to the combustion instability as the chief technical risk that must be retired before we’d be able to pick an engine,” Bruno said. He anticipated a series of tests, lasting for several weeks, where the engine’s thrust is gradually increased to measure its performance and determine if it suffers from combustion instability.

Bruno said he was encouraged by tests of some key engine components, including the preburner, a smaller version of the main engine that powers the engine’s turbomachinery. “The good news is the preburner is running like a top,” he said. “We’re starting to get more and more confidence that we’re going to have a good experience when we run a full-scale engine.”

If the tests all go as planned, Bruno said ULA could be ready to formally select the BE-4 in as soon as 60 to 90 days. “But it could take longer,” he added. “It’s not on the calendar.”

Tory Bruno Jeff Bezos BE-4
Tony Bruno (left), Jeff Bezos and the BE-4 engine at 2014 press conference. Credit: SpaceNews/Brian Berger

Rob Meyerson, president of Blue Origin, confirmed in an April 5 interview that test of the BE-4 will start in the next several weeks. One engine is already at the company’s test site, with two more shipping there soon.

“We wanted to go into the test program hardware-rich,” he said. With those engines and other equipment at the test site, “we can move through the test program quite rapidly.” He said that testing would continue after ULA made its decision, with final certification of the BE-4 planned for late 2018 or early 2019.

While Bruno will make the decision about the engine, he will get plenty of advice. He said he recently established an independent non-advocate review (INR) team of outside experts to review the overall engine evaluation process. That team includes former Secretary of the Air Force Sheila Widnall; retired Air Force Maj. Gen. Susan Mashiko, former deputy director of the National Reconnaissance Office; and Ray Johnson, former vice president for space launch operations at the Aerospace Corp.

Bruno said Congress also established a separate INR team, comprised of engineers from NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center, to review the engine selection process. “I was actually happy to hear that they did that,” Bruno said, adding that this team had access to the same data as ULA’s own review team.

Rob Meyerson, president of Blue Origin, confirmed in an April 5 interview that test of the BE-4 will start in the next several weeks. Credit: Tom Kimmel
Rob Meyerson, president of Blue Origin, confirmed in an April 5 interview that test of the BE-4 will start in the next several weeks. Credit: Tom Kimmel

Bruno added that he expected the Air Force would also seek access to the test data and provide ULA with its own opinion about the engine. “I will hear all of those opinions and it will be super easy if everybody says the same thing,” he said. “If they do not, then we will resolve that. And then we will make a choice.”

Aerojet Rocketdyne’s AR1 engine remains the alternative for Vulcan should the BE-4 run into technical problems. Development of the AR1 is 18 to 24 months behind the BE-4, he said, because it started later. “I have confidence they can get their engine to work” because of its use of a more conventional fuel, kerosene.

Blue Origin, though, has the financial edge. Bruno said ULA already has a firm fixed-price deal with Blue Origin for “a large enough quantity” of engines that covers initial Vulcan missions. Those engines will be produced initially at Blue Origin’s factory in Kent, Washington.

“Their production capability actually looks quite good,” Bruno said of those initial BE-4 engine plans. “My INR heads came back to me and said they are very comfortable with that production capability already.”

Later engines will be built at a separate facility Blue Origin plans to develop in the next few years that will be designed to produce dozens of engines a year. “We’re in the process of site selection for a full production site,” Meyerson said. He declined to identify the locations being considered, but said a decision should be made in the next six months.

Bruno said that he expected to decide on the Vulcan engine this year, but wouldn’t be rushed into one. “I get to make this decision, like, once. This is a big decision and if you don’t get it right, it’s very hard to come back from that,” he said. “So I’m going to take my time and listen to all these experts and stakeholders and then do it.”

Blue Origin Just Released Images of Its Sleek Space Tourism Capsule

Ticket To Ride

While SpaceX just successfully launched a reused rocket for the first time Thursday, Blue Origin has done it before. Jeff Bezos’ private space company has reused one of its rockets twice, in fact. Just this week, the West Texas-based space tourism company gave a preview of its reusable space capsule. The New Shepard passenger capsule and rocket, according to Blue Origin, will be the company’s tour bus for brief trips into space.

Image credit: Blue Origin
Image credit: Blue Origin 

The “sneak peek” images from Blue Origin show the interior of the New Shepard, which boasts the “the largest windows ever in space” — as Blue Origin described them. The seats showcase a sleek black design embossed with the company’s feather logo. During take off, the seats are tilted back so its six passengers are facing up. Once in space, passengers can experience weightlessness in the roomy cabin.

Image credit: Blue Origin
Image credit: Blue Origin

The New Shepard is scheduled for human test flights by this year, according to Blue Origin. It’s expected to carry out its first consumer flights by 2018. “Our New Shepard flight-test program is focused on demonstrating the performance and robustness of the system,” Bezos said in a mass email update sent to their website’s subscribers. “In parallel, we’ve been designing the capsule interior with an eye toward precision engineering, safety and comfort.”

Closer to Home

While SpaceX and Blue Origin may be competing for who could launch the first fully reusable rocket, the goals of the two space companies differ slightly. For SpaceX, the ultimate goal is to bring humanity to Mars by the 2030s, with an immediate goal of sending two private individuals around the moon. Blue Origin, on the other hand, is developing their rockets for space tourism.

Image credit: Blue Origin
Image credit: Blue Origin

In fact, the New Shepard isn’t meant for spaceflights beyond the Earth’s orbit. It is capable of suborbital flight that would bring it high enough to see space, but not high enough to completely loop around the Earth. The New Shepard also presents an opportunity for further microgravity research by serving as a laboratory in space, the company said. Bezos wants to offer higher altitude flights to space tourists eventually, using an orbital rocket now in production called New Glenn.

Space tourism is an exciting new frontier, and Blue Origin isn’t the only company working toward it. Other companies include Virgin Galactic, which has been testing its own spaceplane VSS Unity for a glided space tour. Recently, the company has also started selling tickets for a trip aboard one of its spaceplanes. It has also received an FAA license for its SpaceShipTwo. Another company called World View is even using high-altitude balloons to bring tourists to space.

For now, space tourism plans are limited to a trip around the world and the moon. But eventually — as NASA’s space tourism posters show — we may be able to book a ticket for a ride into the far reaches of space.

The post Blue Origin Just Released Images of Its Sleek Space Tourism Capsule appeared first on Futurism.

Blue Origin working towards making the Cape its Orbital Launch Site

A newly acquired environmental impact report has provided fascinating insights into Blue Origin’s plans to become a major player on the Space Coast. With a massive facility under construction at KSC’s Exploration Park, the company plans to utilize two Cape Canaveral launch complex’s to test rocket engines, integrate launch vehicles, and conduct up to 12 launches per year of its heavy-lift class orbital vehicles.

Blue Origin:

Blue Origin was founded by Amazon billionaire Jeff Bezos and initially tagged as a space tourism project. However, the company is now upping its pace, following the path of its motto ‘Gradatim Ferociter’ – step by step, ferociously.

While its test flights – and landings – of the suborbital New Shepard rocket have been greatly impressive, Blue Origin is now pushing towards a slice of the orbital market via its New Glenn rocket.

With New Shepard testing the BE-3 engine, it’s the BE-4 engine that will accelerate the company forward even more ferociously.

The new engine – set for a test fire in the very near future – even won the attention of space industry powerhouse United Launch Alliance (ULA), as it eyes an American made engine for its Vulcan rocket.

Blue Origin’s New Glenn will be the primary user of the BE-4 engine, launching from Cape Canaveral’s LC-36. However, the company’s presence on the Space Coast will be far more than just at the historic launch pad.

With a huge facility already rising out of the ground at the Kennedy Space Center’s Exploration Park, hardware will make the trip to what will be a 300-acre parcel of land that formerly housed both LC-36 and LC-11.

Throughout nearly 43 years of operation, LC-36 – which comprised of two pads (A and B) launched a combination of commercial and government missions, including those for the USAF and NASA.

Since NASA’s first launch of an Atlas/Centaur rocket in 1962, LC-36 has hosted 145 rocket launches from its two pads (68 from LC-36A and 77 from LC-36B).

2015-09-15-185051The last launch from LC-36A was an Atlas IIAS in 2004, and the last launch from LC-36B was an Atlas IIIB in 2005.

After LC-36 was deactivated in 2006 and much of the infrastructure was demolished in 2006 and 2007, the USAF granted a license to Space Florida in 2009 for the re-development of LC-36 for use as a launch complex for generic launch vehicles (GLV).

In 2010, the USAF 45th Space Wing issued a Real Property License to Space Florida for the complex, allowing for a deal to be struck with Blue Origin with a  sub-license agreement on May 12, 2016. Space Florida has played a pivotal role in revitalizing the Space Coast, with numerous deals, including the SpaceX’s deal to lease Pad 39A.

While LC-36 will be the site of New Glenn launches, a lengthy Environmental Assessment report shows Blue Origin will create another facility at the adjacent LC-11.

The USAF operated LC-11 from 1958 through 1964 as a launch complex for the Atlas family of rockets. It was constructed alongside launch complexes 12, 13, and 14 on what is known as “missile row.”

From the time of the first launch on July 19, 1958, of an Atlas B to the last launch on April 1, 1964, of an Atlas F, thirty-two rockets were launched.

The site was deactivated in 1967, with the pad and service tower structures dismantled. In 2013, the blockhouse was demolished and the site is no longer being maintained.

That will change via Blue Origin’s plans, which include a BE-4 engine test stand at LC-11.

As such, a path of operation for Blue Origin will involve the manufacturing of the large elements, such as first stages, second stages, payload fairings, etc. occurring at the new facility located at Exploration Park (Phase 2).

It is anticipated that primary commercial payload processing would occur at an off-site operations support area.

Once primary payload processing is complete, the payload will be trucked to the Orbital Launch Site (OLS). Optionally, payloads would be fueled at the integration facility.

For the rocket hardware leaving the Exploration Park facility, it will go on road trip to the OLS, as overviewed in the Environmental Assessment report. The path takes the hardware north, then east and down the coastline into LC-36.

“The major elements of the OLS at CCAFS are the launch pad, integration facility, engine test stand, and the systems to recover and refurbish reusable space systems such as the first stage.

“Once elements have been manufactured at the Exploration Park manufacturing facility, they would be transported by road to the integration facility at LC-36.

“The first and second stages, and a possible third stage, would then be mated together and integrated onto the transporter erector system.

“Following integration of the booster stages, the SC (or payloads) would be attached, and then the entire system would undergo a readiness test. The OLV would then be transported from the integration facility approximately 2000 ft. to the launch pad and erected for launch.”

2016-09-12-150711When New Glenn was first introduced, the two-stage variant – with its seven BE-4 engines consuming liquefied natural gas and liquid oxygen – was portrayed as 270 feet tall, with a second stage powered by a single vacuum-optimized BE-4 engine (the BE-4U).

A 3-stage New Glenn was shown to be 313 feet tall, with a single vacuum-optimized BE-3 engine, burning liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, powering the third stage.

Interestingly, the report notes the three-stage vehicle will be “up to 350 ft (106.68 m) tall, with the thrust of the vehicle reaching approximately, 4.5 million lbf (2 MN). The report also adds that the launch rate anticipated for New Glenn will eventually reach 12 launches per year.

The eventual makeup of the Blue Origin OLS complex will see it spread over existing LC-11 and LC-36, with the launch pad co-located on the former LC-36A area and the engine test stand on the former LC-11 area.

The company will build a deluge basin for the launch pad, located east of the pad, an integration facility, refurbishment building, and GSE (Ground Support Equipment) building will be constructed to support launch operations. Approximately 100 parking spaces will also be constructed for the facility workforce.

Another GSE building will be constructed to support engine testing operations. LOX, and LNG, and LH2 storage tanks will be constructed in the vicinity of the launch pad for the purpose of supporting both launch vehicle fueling, as well as engine testing. A water tank will also be constructed between the launch pad and the engine test stand for water sound suppression and firefighting water supply.

Blue Origin – like SpaceX – has reusability as a major element of its business case, with New Shepard proving to be an able pathfinder for landing the booster after launch.

New Glenn will also return the booster home for reuse, with the latest overview video showing the first stage landing on a ship in the Atlantic.

The report notes the recovery area is expected to defined as an ellipse centered on approximately latitude 29° 42’ 17.79” N and 71° 30′ 53.01″ W with a length and width of approximately 630 miles (1013 km) and 440 miles (708 km) respectively.

The booster will then be returned back to Florida, sailing into Port Canaveral, with the environmental impact report showing the path it will then take back to LC-36 for refurbishment – including a wash down – while also outlining how Blue Origin will process the returned stages.

“The refurbishment building will be constructed at the entrance to the current LC-36 complex.

“After the recoverable first stage is retrieved and returned to the launch site from its offshore landing area, it must be washed to remove salt spray and possible contaminants associated with launch and re-entry.

“A wash water collection system would be designed and constructed to retain the water for recycling or approved discharge to the CCAFS waste water system.”

The stage – as with new stages – will then head to the integration facility at LC-36, located approximately 2,000 feet from the launch pad. This building will have an area of approximately 150,000 sq. ft. (13,935 sq. m.) with a length of 500 ft. (152.4 m.), a width of 300 ft. It may also contain office space and payload fueling operations may also be performed in the integration facility.

The single engine test stand at LC-11 will be used for engine acceptance testing of the BE-4 engine.

“This stand could be designed with a vertical testing configuration for testing the BE-4 engine,” added the report. “The BE-4 will be indirectly fueled during testing through use of remote LNG and LOX tanks located in the vicinity of the test stand.

“The flame duct for the test stand is proposed to be directed in a north-northeast direction at approximately 5 degrees. The deluge basin will be located to the north of the engine test stand and will be approximately 100 ft. x100 ft. (30.5 m x 30.5 m).”

The report adds acceptance testing requires a variety of engine test run durations with a maximum total run duration of approximately 500 seconds.

The total duration of all engine testing would be approximately 30 minutes per month based on approximately nine test events per month. The report also notes New Glenn flows will likely include static fire tests of the rocket on LC-36.

Additional points made in the document includes work that will be undertaken on the roadways, which includes side by side roadways and enough room for at least two first stage boosters side by side in the integration facility.

All new road-ways will be constructed between 6 inches and 12 inches higher than existing roadways “which are some of the highest in the area”, based on “factored global climate change and water level rise” forecasting.

With Blue Origin set to make Cape Canaveral the home of its OLS, the report also noted the Space Coast had to compete with several rival sites within the continental United States, including Camden County Georgia, Hyde County North Carolina and Virginia’s Wallops Island.

New Glenn may debut out of Cape Canaveral as soon as 2020.

(Images via USAF, Blue Origin and L2).